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Hornbills in Thailand

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Indian Pied Hornbill (Oriental Pied Hornbill)




Science Name : Anthracoceros albirostris
General Characteristics : The Indian Pied Hornbill is the smallest in Thailand with a body length of 70 centimeters. Most of the body color is black, and there is some white on the stomach, cheek, wing edge, and tail edge. It has a very large yellow mouth and the large hump on the upper part of the mouth. The female bird is smaller in size than the male bird.
Habitat / Food : Can be found in deciduous forest, dry evergreen forest, deciduous dipterocarp forest, India, South of China, and Southeast Asia. In Thailand, it can be found in every region except the upper part of the North-East. The albirotris type can be found all across the country but the convexus type can be found only in the lower part of the South. Indian Pied Hornbill eats fruit and fig, especially banyan seeds, fig seeds, also insects and small reptiles.
Behavior / Mating : Seeks for food as a group, stays on high trees, eating fruit, fig and small reptiles, makes a loud noise ďgag, gag, gagĒ This bird breeds during April to May, building the nest in the hollow of a tree. It lays 2 to 3 eggs each time. During the incubation, the birdís mother will enter the nest before the birdís father closes the nest, leaving a small hole for feeding by the birdís father, also for taking out the dung from the birdís mother and the chick. The birdís mother will stay in the nest until the chick hatches out and then they will help each other to open the nest.
Current Status : Is a sedentary bird which is rarely be found in the region and is categorized as a wild animal according to Wild Animals Preservation and Protection Act B.E. 2535

Bushy-crested Hornbill



Science Name : Anorrhinus galeritus
General Characteristics : The male and female are alike. The difference is only the mouth of which the male is black and the female is paler. Feathers covering body are black, except at the tail edge which is white, and the wing tip is black. There is hair on its head which looks like a crest. Mouth and all the mouth edge are black.
Habitat / Food : The Bushy-crested Hornbill has a hometown in Tanowsri massif of Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo. For Thailand, it can be found only in the South. This bird eats fruit and insects, also small animals, for example; chameleon, ground lizard and snakes.
Behavior / Mating : The Bushy-crested Hornbill lives in the tropical rain forest and normally clings on the high branches. It is quite swift and difficult to get close to. It stays in a troop, builds the nest in the hollow of the tree, and builds the same nest at the same place often, this it will frequently repair.
The birdís mother will take the opportunity to shed feathers while incubating and feeding the chick. The Bushy-crested Hornbill is difficult to find and to feed. If catching while it is not totally grown up, it will not survive. This bird lays 2 to 3 eggs each time. It is believed that the hornbill will stay with its partner for life.

White-crowned Hornbill (White-crested Hornbill)



Science Name : Berenicornis comatus
General Characteristics : The White-crowned hornbill has the body size of approximately 90 centimeters. The male and female have different characteristics. The head, neck, and wing edge of the male are white and the rest are black. For the female, it has the black neck and body and a black large mouth. The crest of both male and female is white.
Habitat / Food : Can be found in Asia continent around Sumatra area, Malaysia, Vietnam, and Tanowsri massif. For Thailand, it can be found only in the South and some part of the West, for example; Kankrajan national park. The food are generally small reptiles, for example; snakes, chameleon, skink, also fruit and figs
Behavior / Mating : Stays together as a small troop and often makes a lot of noise. It lives in tropical rain forest from the foothills level to the height of 600 meters from the sea level or higher.The breeding behavior of the White-crowned hornbill is the same as that of other hornbills. It never changes its partner throughout its life. The female will lay eggs in the hollow of the tree and the male will seek for the food to feed the mother of the bird and the chick.
Current Status : Currently has a tendency of becoming extinct, thus categorized as a protected wild animal according to Wild Animals Preservation and Protection Act B.E. 2535

Rhinoceros Hornbill



Science Name : Buceros rhinoceros
General Characteristics : The Rhinoceros Hornbill grows quite large. It has the body length of approximately 120 centimeters. The male and female have a few different characteristics. The female has the larger body size than the male. The female has a hump near the ear and paler eyes than the male. Other than that, they are quite similar; black feathers and body, white stomach and tails with black horizontal stripes near the tail edge which is similar to the Great hornbill. The hump above the mouth is an upward arch and the hump edge which is in front of an upward arch has red color.
Habitat / Food : Can be found in Malaysia. For Thailand, it can be found only in the lower part of the South from Songkla province onward. They eat snakes, skink, chameleon, fruit, fig, and other small animals.
Behavior / Mating : Live in tropical rain forest at the height level of not exceeding 4,000 feet or 1,200 meters from the sea level and normally clings on the high branch of the tree. The mating behavior of Rhinoceros Hornbill is similar to that of other hornbills. It builds its nest in the hollow of a tree and the male will be the one who seeks for food to feed the birdís mother and the chick.
Current Status : Currently has a tendency of becoming extinct, thus categorized as a protected wild animal according to Wild Animals Preservation and Protection Act B.E. 2535