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  1. #4951
    Veni vidi fugi
    pseudolus's Avatar
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    and lovely it was too. Hopefully it will keep warming up, all the ice melts and turns to water, food will be abundant. might be a tad annoying though cutting the lawn at Christmas like they were in England 400 years ago... cos it was rather hot then as well.

    Wooo hoooo.
    "It's a small place so don't tell porkies"

  2. #4952
    Guest Member S Landreth's Avatar
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    It’s official: 2017 was one of the hottest years on record - Even without El Nino last year, Earth keeps on warming

    In fact, 2017 ranked among the hottest years on record, even without an El Niño, which spiked temperatures in 2016.

    Last year was either the second- or the third-warmest year on record, depending on whether you ask NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association.

    2017 was the second-hottest year, behind only 2016, according to NASA, which pegs the world’s average temperatures at 1.62 degrees Fahrenheit (0.90 degrees Celsius) warmer than the 1951 to 1980 mean. But according to NOAA, 2017 was the third warmest on record, behind 2016 and 2015. The two government agencies ranked 2017 differently because they use slightly different methods to calculate world temperatures.

    Despite the difference, the long-term warming trends are very clear, Gavin Schmidt, director of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, said during a press conference. “The overall picture is very, very similar and coherent,” Schmidt said. “We’re in a long-term warming trend.”

    But at the press conference today, Schmidt reiterated that all the warming we’ve been witnessing in the last 60 years is due to us, in particular the the increasing levels of heat-trapping greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide we’ve been pumping into the atmosphere.


    https://www.theverge.com/2018/1/18/1...ends-nasa-noaa - Even without El Nino last year, Earth keeps on warming - ABC News



    https://twitter.com/ClimateOfGavin/s...46698069921794
    ___________

    Quote Originally Posted by Pragmatic View Post

    Quote Originally Posted by S Landreth View Post
    Venezuela is losing its last glacier
    It's not the only one and the reason why isn't what you may think.

    solar radiation is the driving factor of glacial retreat
    Colombia's disappearing glaciers - LatinAmericanScience.org

    You’re wrong, but I am sure you are well aware of it and hear it all the time.

    What science says (I’m going to cut this up a bit, but the links are there).........

    Throughout the Tropics, glaciers are in retreat…… The case of Quelccaya, in the Andes, is especially interesting, because it provides direct evidence of an unusual recent warming trend. When the summit core was first drilled in 1976, the chemical composition of the ice showed well-preserved annual layering throughout its depth, accounting for a time span of 1500 years. When attempts were made to update the record by redrilling in 1991, it was found that the annual cycle had been wiped out over the top 20 meters of the core by percolation of meltwater from extensive melting of the ice surface since 1976. Melting of this sort had not occurred at the summit at any time during the previous 1500 years, and indicates an increase of 150 m, between 1976 and 1991, of the altitude at which significant melting occurs.

    The widespread retreat is all the more notable because tropical mountain glaciers are old. They have survived thousands of years of natural climate fluctuations, only to dwindle at a time when other climate indicators — notably surface temperature — are showing the imprint of human influence on climate.

    Because of the spatial homogeneity of tropical free-tropospheric temperature, when one sees tropical glaciers recede in concert, there is strong reason to presume that air temperature is playing a direct role, temperature being the one thing that is expected to change in lock-step throughout the tropics.

    The altitude separating the accumulation zone from the ablation zone is known as the equilibrium line altitude. Glaciers shrink when climate change causes the equilibrium line to rise, but they stop at a new, smaller equilibrium size. However, if the equilibrium line rises to the summit of the mountain, the accumulation zone disappears altogether and the glacier is doomed.: Tropical Glacier Retreat « RealClimate
    ____________

    Glaciers Melting Fast in South America

    A new study shows that these networks of glaciers have been losing water much faster in the past 12 years than they had been in previous decades.

    Between the 1970s and 2000, meltwater from both ice fields raised global sea levels by an average of .042 millimeters each year, previous research showed. Using satellite imagery, a team of researchers at Cornell University found that this figure has increased to 0.067 mm per year since 2000.

    "We find some glaciers are stagnant and even that some have advanced slightly but on the whole, retreat and thinning is prevalent," lead Cornell researcher, Michael Willis, said in a statement. "Interestingly, we see thinning occurring up to the highest elevations, where presumably it is coldest."

    Warming air temperatures may directly contribute to the thinning, but they also increase chances of rain. More precipitation could mean more water beneath the glaciers, causing them to move faster and push more ice into the oceans, the researchers said. And rising water levels in lakes surrounding glaciers also could be eating away at their edges.

    The study was published Sept. 5 in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.: https://www.livescience.com/22953-gl...h-america.html
    __________

    Climate change and tropical Andean glaciers: Past, present and future

    New data from mass balance networks established on over a dozen glaciers allows comparison of the glacier behavior in the inner and outer tropics. It appears that glacier variations are quite coherent throughout the region, despite different sensitivities to climatic forcing such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, etc. In parallel with the glacier retreat, climate in the tropical Andes has changed significantly over the past 50–60 years. Temperature in the Andes has increased by approximately 0.1 °C/decade, with only two of the last 20 years being below the 1961–90 average. Precipitation has slightly increased in the second half of the 20th century in the inner tropics and decreased in the outer tropics. The general pattern of moistening in the inner tropics and drying in the subtropical Andes is dynamically consistent with observed changes in the large-scale circulation, suggesting a strengthening of the tropical atmospheric circulation. Model projections of future climate change in the tropical Andes indicate a continued warming of the tropical troposphere throughout the 21st century, with a temperature increase that is enhanced at higher elevations. By the end of the 21st century, following the SRES A2 emission scenario, the tropical Andes may experience a massive warming on the order of 4.5–5 °C.

    Given the projected changes in climate, based on different IPCC scenarios for 2050 and 2080, simulations with a tropical glacier–climate model indicate that glaciers will continue to retreat. Many smaller, low-lying glaciers are already completely out of equilibrium with current climate and will disappear within a few decades.: Climate change and tropical Andean glaciers: Past, present and future - ScienceDirect
    ____________

    Why glaciers are so important……..

    According to general circulation models of future climate in a world with double the preindustrial carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, the rate of warming in the lower troposphere will increase with altitude. Thus, temperatures will rise more in the high mountains than at lower elevations (see the figure) (1). Maximum temperature increases are predicted to occur in the high mountains of Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and northern Chile. If the models are correct, the changes will have important consequences for mountain glaciers and for communities that rely on glacier-fed water supplies.

    In these high-altitude areas, ice masses are declining rapidly (4–6). Indeed, glacier retreat is under way in all Andean countries, from Columbia and Venezuela to Chile (7).

    The processes involved in mass-balance changes at any one location are complex, but temperature is a good proxy (12) for all these processes, and most of the observed changes are linked to the rise in temperature over recent decades (5). Further warming of the magnitude shown in the figure will thus have a strong negative impact on glaciers throughout the Cordillera of North and South America. Many glaciers may completely disappear in the next few decades, with important consequences for people living in the region (7).

    In the High Andes, the potential impact of such changes on water supplies for human consumption, agriculture, and ecosystem integrity is of grave concern. Many large cities in the Andes are located above 2500 m and thus depend almost entirely on high-altitude water stocks to complement rainfall during the dry season.

    Recent high-resolution (grid size ∼10 km) regional climate simulations for the Colombian Andes indicate that even at relatively low altitudes, projected temperature increases and changes in rainfall patterns have the potential to disrupt water and power supplies to large segments of the population (14). Such simulations must be used to inform decision-makers of the steps they need to take to avoid a very problematical future in the region.: Threats to Water Supplies in the Tropical Andes | Science
    ____________

    Next time you go in search of an article to dispute/critique my post you might want to find a credible source and backup to support your post other than an article copied and pasted from ScienceFriday (via latinamericanscience).
    Keep your friends close and your enemies closer.

  3. #4953
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    Microwaves 'could be as bad for the environment as millions of cars'

    By agency reporter
    JANUARY 20, 2018



    Microwave usage across the EU alone emits as much carbon dioxide as nearly seven million cars according to a new study by the University of Manchester.
    Researchers at the University have carried out the first ever comprehensive study of the environmental impacts of microwaves, considering their whole life cycle, from ‘cradle to grave’.
    The study found:

    • Microwaves emit 7.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year in the EU. This is equivalent to the annual emissions of 6.8 million cars.
    • Microwaves across the EU consume an estimated 9.4 terawatts per hour (TWh) of electricity every year. This is equivalent to the annual electricity generated by three large gas power plants.
    • Efforts to reduce consumption should focus on improving consumer awareness and behaviour to use appliances more efficiently

    Microwaves account for the largest percentage of sales of all type of ovens in the European Union (EU), with numbers set to reach nearly 135 million by 2020. Despite this, the scale of their impacts on the environment was not known until now.
    The study used life cycle assessment (LCA) to estimate the impacts of microwaves, taking into account their manufacture, use and end-of-life waste management. Altogether, the research team investigated 12 different environmental factors, including climate change, depletion of natural resources and ecological toxicity. They found, for example, that the microwaves used across the EU emit 7.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year. This is equivalent to the annual emission of 6.8 million cars.
    The research shows that the main environmental ‘hotspots’ are materials used to manufacture the microwaves, the manufacturing process and end-of-life waste management. For example, the manufacturing process alone contributes more than 20 per cent to depletion of natural resources and to climate change.
    However, it is electricity consumption by microwaves that has the biggest impact on the environment, taking into account its whole life cycle, from production of fuels to generation of electricity. In total, microwaves across the EU consume an estimated 9.4 terawatts per hour (TWh) of electricity every year. This is equivalent to the annual electricity generation by three large gas power plants.
    The study found that, on average, an individual microwave uses 573 kilowatt hour (kWh) of electricity over its lifetime of eight years. That is equivalent to the electricity consumed by a 7 watt LED light bulb, left on continuously for almost nine years. This is despite the fact that microwaves spend more than 90 per cent of their lifetime being idle, in the stand-by mode.
    The study’s authors suggest that efforts to reduce consumption should focus on improving consumer awareness and behaviour to use appliances more efficiently. For example, electricity consumption by microwaves can be reduced by adjusting the time of cooking to the type of food.
    Waste is another major problem. Due to their relative low cost and ease of manufacture, consumers are throwing more electrical and electronic (EE) equipment away than ever before, including microwaves.
    In 2005, across the EU, 184,000 tonnes of EE waste was generated from discarded microwaves. By 2025 this is estimated to rise to 195,000 tonnes, or 16 million individual units being sent for disposal.
    Dr Alejandro Gallego-Schmid, from the School of Chemical Engineering & Analytical Science, explains: "Rapid technological developments and falling prices are driving the purchase of electrical and electronic appliances in Europe.
    "‘Consumers now tend to buy new appliances before the existing ones reach the end of their useful life as electronic goods have become fashionable and ‘status’ items.
    "As a result, discarded electrical equipment, such as microwaves, is one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide."
    Another major contributing factor to the waste is a reduced lifespan of microwaves. It is now nearly seven years shorter than it was almost 20 years ago. Research shows that a microwave’s life cycle has decreased from around 10 to 15 years in the late 90s to between six to eight years today.
    Dr Gallego-Schmid added, "Given that microwaves account for the largest percentage of sales of all type of ovens in the EU, it is increasingly important to start addressing their impact on resource use and end-of-life waste."
    The study also shows that existing regulation will not be sufficient to reduce the environmental impacts of microwaves. It recommends that it will be necessary to develop specific regulations for these devices targeting their design. This will help to reduce the amount of resources used to make microwaves and waste generated at the end of their lifetime.

    Ekklesia | Microwaves 'could be as bad for the environment as millions of cars'





  4. #4954
    Guest Member S Landreth's Avatar
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    2017 – all the record numbers

    State of the climate: how the world warmed in 2017

    The climate data for 2017 is now in. In this article, Carbon Brief explains why last year proved to be so remarkable across the oceans, atmosphere, cryosphere and surface temperature of the planet.

    A number of records for the Earth’s climate were set in 2017:

    · It was the warmest year on record for ocean heat content, which increased markedly between 2016 and 2017.
    · It was the second or third warmest year on record for surface temperature – depending on the dataset used – and the warmest year without the influence of an El Niño event.
    · It saw record lows in sea ice extent and volume in the Arctic both at the beginning and end of the year, though the minimum extent reached in September was only the eighth lowest on record.
    · It also saw record-low Antarctic sea ice for much of the year, though scientists are still working to determine the role of human activity in the region’s sea ice changes.

    Warmest year on record in the oceans

    More than 90% of the heat trapped by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations ends up going into the Earth’s oceans. While surface temperatures fluctuate a bit from year to year due to natural variability, ocean heat content increases much more smoothly and is, in many ways, a more reliable indicator of the warming of the Earth, albeit one with a shorter historical record.

    2017 set a clear record for the highest ocean heat content since records began in 1958, according to the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP-CAS), which maintains an up-to-date ocean heat content database.


    top five years on record in terms of ocean heat: https://www.theguardian.com/environm...-ever-recorded

    1) 2017: 19.19 × 1022 J
    2) 2015: 17.68 × 1022 J
    3) 2016: 17.18 × 1022 J
    4) 2014: 16.74 × 1022 J
    5) 2013: 16.08 × 1022 J

    Warmest surface temperatures without an El Niño

    Global surface temperatures in 2017 were the second or third warmest on record since 1850, when global temperatures can first be calculated with reasonable accuracy. Unlike the other warmest years – 2015 and 2016 – there was no El Niño event in 2017 (or in late 2016) contributing to increased temperatures this year (and mild El Niño conditions in early 2017 were offset by mild La Niña conditions during the later part of the year).


    Near-record warmth in satellite records

    In addition to surface measurements over the world’s land and oceans, satellite microwave sounding units have been providing estimates of global lower atmospheric temperatures since 1979. These measurements, while subject to some large uncertainties, also show 2017 as a near-record warm year.

    The record produced by Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) shows 2017 as the second warmest year after 2016 (El Niño year), while the record from the University of Alabama, Huntsville (UAH) shows it as the third warmest after 2016 and 1998 (El Niño years).


    Low sea ice at both poles

    In addition to near-record temperatures, 2017 also saw record-low sea ice during parts of the year, both in the Arctic and Antarctic.




    Antarctic and Arctic sea ice extent is combined to estimate global sea ice extent in the figure below.


    The figure below shows the range of individual models forecasts between 1970 and 2020 with grey shading, with the average projection across all the models shown in black. Individual observational temperature records are represented by coloured lines.


    https://www.carbonbrief.org/state-of...warmed-in-2017

  5. #4955
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    Thing is with this Landreth bloke he used to post daily saying Clinton 99% chance of winning, welcome to president Clinton with his daily graphs and statistics. But not once did he acknowledge he got it wrong and not just got it a little bit wrong but a whole years of wasted posting was shown to be total bullshit. And also when anyone replied to his posts he'd never respond as in he's a total shill.

    And now he's doing the same on global warming/climate change. He posts up any nonsense but when challenged is incapable of any debate. Just daily MSM fed crap.
    Independence day - June 23 for Brits.

  6. #4956
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    harrybarracuda's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by buriramboy View Post
    Thing is with this Landreth bloke he used to post daily saying Clinton 99% chance of winning, welcome to president Clinton with his daily graphs and statistics. But not once did he acknowledge he got it wrong and not just got it a little bit wrong but a whole years of wasted posting was shown to be total bullshit. And also when anyone replied to his posts he'd never respond as in he's a total shill.

    And now he's doing the same on global warming/climate change. He posts up any nonsense but when challenged is incapable of any debate. Just daily MSM fed crap.
    I haven't seen you offer any serious debate in this thread.

    And Clinton won the popular vote exactly as most pollsters predicted, so your little red herring is off the mark.

    Go ahead, let's hear why global warming is some kind of myth.

  7. #4957
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    Quote Originally Posted by buriramboy View Post
    Just daily MSM fed crap.
    Cherchez les Russians...

  8. #4958
    Thailand Expat misskit's Avatar
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    Climate change hits the poorest hardest

    Research shows that rising temperatures pose a greater risk of illness and death, as Hong Tsang reports from Hong Kong.

    It was the flu that made Jordan Lee, 10, miss an important final-term exam. The night of Nov 12 was a nightmare. When Lee's temperature hit 40 C and stayed there, he was admitted to Caritas Medical Centre in Hong Kong and remained there until the fever abated.


    The boy is always ill. His mother, who would only give her name as Ms Tao, quickly realized that after she and Jordan moved into a cramped, poorly ventilated apartment in Sham Shui Po, Kowloon, five years ago. Lee has been in poor health ever since.


    Mother and son fear summer most. They sweltered in the heat for years, before caving in and turning on the air conditioning, despite the extra expense, in the hope it would keep Lee healthy.


    A study by Emily Chan Yingyang, assistant dean and professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong's Faculty of Medicine, discovered that when the ambient temperature rises above 28.5 C, the risk of being hospitalized with a respiratory ailment increases. For children age 15 and younger, the risk increases by an average of 19.5 percent for each 1 degree rise in temperature, while for people ages 15 to 59, the figure is 8.2 percent.


    Chan was the first physician to investigate illnesses caused by rising temperatures in Hong Kong. When she checked the city's hospitalization data for 1998 to 2006, she made a connection between daily mean temperatures and mortality: When the daily mean temperature rose 1 degree above 28.2 C, the overall mortality rate on the same day rose by 1.8 percent.


    "That proved that every rise of 1 degree over 28.2 C can be perilous to human health," she said.


    The problem is getting worse, as illustrated by weather records for the past two decades.


    Between June and August, the temperature climbed above 28.2 C on 68 days. In 2007, the city saw 61 days above the threshold, while in 1997 the number was 42, according to the Hong Kong Observatory.


    "Climate change has driven ambient temperatures to a level that could debilitate human health, with our children suffering the most. The research bears it out," Chan said.



    Rising temperatures


    Last year, temperatures of 28 C or higher were recorded on 41 nights, the highest number in the city's recorded history. Moreover, during the afternoon of Aug 22-the day before Typhoon Hato struck-the temperature rocketed to 36.6 C, a record high.


    The temperature in Hong Kong has risen by 0.15 C every decade since 1987. Unless greenhouse gas emissions are sharply curbed, the city's annual mean temperature is expected to rise by about 1.5 C to 3 C by 2060, and by 3 C to 6 C by 2100.


    A study by 24 international academic institutions and organizations found that the greater frequency of heat waves and their longer durations exposed an additional 125 million people worldwide to greater health risks between 2000 and 2016.


    It also found that people under prolonged exposure to high temperatures were more prone to heat stress, heatstroke, and aggravated cardiovascular and renal conditions. Moreover, the poor are at greatest risk.


    Lee, at the lower end of the social scale, may not know the statistics, but he knows he was sick last summer, when he was hospitalized with summer flu for several nights.


    "I have never seen hotter days than during last summer," he said. "I always found myself lying on the bed, heaving, sweating, unable to sleep, dizzy and very uncomfortable."


    Chan's research discovered an overall 4.5 percent rise in hospital admissions from 1998 to 2009 when the daily mean temperature rose 1 degree above the 28.5 C threshold.


    "Wealthier families can afford air-conditioning, but poor families can't," she said.



    Under the weather


    A better way of understanding the effect of hot weather on humans was provided by Richard Fielding, professor at the School of Public Health at the University of Hong Kong.


    He said the "wet-bulb" temperature is a useful way of assessing the dangers of extreme heat on the human body. As the name implies, a wet-bulb temperature involves wrapping a wet cloth around a thermometer bulb. That means the reading takes account of the moisture in the air, which gives a more accurate index of the heat effect on the human body.


    Fielding said the core body temperature is about 37 C, but the temperature on the surface of the skin is usually about 35 C.


    A wet-bulb temperature of 35 C is as much as the human body can stand. Any higher, and it is impossible for the body to cool itself through the evaporation of sweat. Heat becomes trapped inside the body and the internal temperature climbs.


    As the body absorbs more heat from the surrounding environment than it is capable of dissipating, hyperthermia sets in, followed by heat cramps, exhaustion and, sometimes, lethal heatstroke. For that reason the wet-bulb temperature of 35 C is sometimes referred to as the "survivability threshold".


    "If someone reaches a wetbulb temperature of 35 C and can't cool down, they will die of heat stress after six hours, even if they drink a lot of water," Fielding said.


    In 2015, a severe heat wave with a wet-bulb temperature at 50 C swept India and Pakistan. More than 3,500 people died in regions where there was no air conditioning and no relief from the heat.


    Hong Kong has yet to see days with a wet-bulb temperature higher than 35 C, but the trend toward rising temperatures gives cause for concern. According to the city's observatory, if greenhouse gas concentrations continue to rise, the number of extremely hot and humid days, with wet-bulb temperatures of 28.2 C or higher, is expected to hit 96 per year by the end of the century.

    MORE Climate change hits the poorest hardest - Chinadaily.com.cn




    More nonsense from the MSM.

  9. #4959
    Thailand Expat

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    But she is not the president.

  10. #4960
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    Quote Originally Posted by RPETER65 View Post
    But she is not the president.
    Yes, bit of a fucking shame really. Instead we have this fat orange turd who, given the chance, has no compunction about taking healthcare away from the poor and elderly to line his fucking pockets.

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